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Supplement Facts



























Collagen:
Collagen is a major component of many tissues, including bone, cartilage, and skin. Like all proteins, it is made of amino acids. Collagen production begins in the cells and finishes in the space between cells. The cell makes three chains of amino acids that combine into a triple helix. The cell secretes the triple helix. Then it becomes finished collagen outside the cell and binds with other collagen molecules to form the scaffolding that cells live on.

There are over a dozen types of collagen. Each type of collagen has a structure that gives it the properties it needs for its function. Collagen I, II, and III are the most common types of collagen. Collagen I and III are significant components of skin. The collagen in Toki comes from pig hides and is primarily type I collagen. These collagens are long strands that attach to each other at selected points to make a three dimensional mesh. Collagen makes skin strong, supple, and resilient.

Reference:

Collagen: The Fibrous Protein of the Matrix. National Center for Biotechnology Information
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

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Vitamin C:
Vitamin C is an antioxidant. Plants evolved antioxidants to protect themselves from molecules called free radicals. A free radical is very reactive, because it has an unpaired electron. Researchers suspect that free radicals react with important molecules in the cells. An antioxidant may protect a cell by being an alternate target for the free radical. The free radical attaches to the antioxidant instead of the molecules in the cell.

Besides being an antioxidant, vitamin C appears to be important in collagen product. The last phase of collagen production is catalyzed by an enzyme that may require vitamin C to work. Medical researches first learned the importance of vitamin C by examining British sailors who spent long periods on ships without sufficient fruits and vegetables. The sailors developed skin concerns, because the lack of vitamin C lead to a lack of collagen in the skin. Citrus fruits are an excellent source of vitamin C. Once citric fruits were added to the sailors' diet, their conditions improved. The slang term "limeys" means British sailor and comes from their habit of consuming citrus fruit in days gone by.

Toki has vitamin C to help neutralize free radicals and promote collagen production.

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AAACa Calcium (AdvaCAL®):
Calcium is an essential mineral. It is important for building strong bones. Scientists are uncertain about the role of Calcium in the skin. Evidence suggests that calcium attracts keratinocytes to damaged parts of skin during regeneration. Keratinocytes are the cells that create the outer most layer of skin. Live keratinocytes live at the bottom of this layer and continuously grow and divide. Older keratinocytes get pushed towards the surface of the skin by the newer keratinocytes beneath them. As the keratinocytes age, they fill with keratin, the same substance that nails are made of. Dead keratinocytes full of keratin make up the top of the outermost skin layer.

Toki, from LaneLabs, features highly absorbable AAACa calcium, for healthy skin and bone support. AAACa has been clinically shown to significantly increase bone density, even in postmenopausal and elderly women.

Reference:
1. Interaction of Epidermal Growth Factor, Ca2+, and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Primary Keratinocyte Migration. PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18028140
2. http: www.bonelossandyou.com
3.. Fujita T, Ohue T, Fujii Y, et al “Heated Oyster Shell-Seaweed Calcium (AAACa) on [Bone Loss] Calcif Tissue Int (1996) 58:226-23.
4. Fujita T, Fujii Y, Goto B, Miyauchi A,Takagi Y. “A Three Year Comparative trial : Effect of combined alfacalcidol and elcatonin” J Bone Miner Metab (1997) 15:223-226
5. Fujita T, “Calcium Bioavailability from Heated Oyster Shell-Seaweed calcium (Active Absorbable Algal calcium) as Assessed by Urinary Calcium, Excretion” J. Bone Miner Metab (1996) 14:31-34
6. Fujita T, Ohgitani S. , Fujii Y. “Overnight Suppression of Parathyroid Hormone and Bone Resorption Markers by Active Absorbable Algal Calcium. A Double-Blind Crossover Study” Calcif Tissue Int (1997) 60, 506-512
7. Fujita T, Fujii Y, Goto B , Miyauchi A, Takagi Y, Kobayashi S, Komoshita K, et al Increase of Intestinal Calcium Absorption and Bone Mineral Density by Heated Algal-Ingredient (HAI) in Rats J Bone Miner Metab (2000) 18:165-169
8. Fujita T, Ohue M, Fujii Y, Miyauchi A, Takagi T “Reappraisal of Katsuragi Calcium Study, A Prospective, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effect of Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa) on Vertebral Deformity and Fracture” J. Bone Miner Metab (2004) 22:32-38

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Hyaluronic Acid
Hyaluronic Acid is a natural component of skin tissue, found in the tissue matrix among the collagen and elastin. Hyaluronic acid is carbohydrate with 6 carbon rings. Many of the side groups on a hyaluronic acids molecule have negative charges or partially positive charges. This allows the hyaluronic acid to interact with other molecules. It is especially important for binding to water molecules, because a water molecule has a partial negative charge on the oxygen atom and a partial positive charge on each hydrogen atom. Hyaluronic acid is believed to help nutrients get into the skin, keeping skin hydrated by holding onto water. Hydrated skin also is more plush, which cushions skin when it bumps into something hard.

The Hyaluronic Acid in Toki comes from the Mucopolysaccharide complex

References:
1. Summary of Safety and Effectiveness Data for Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid. Food and Drug Administration
http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf/P940015S012b.pdf
2. Hylaform® gel Explained. Food and Drug Administration
http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf3/P030032d.pdf

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Mucopolysaccharide:
Mucopolysaccharide is a polymer, meaning it is a molecule with many repeated units. The name of a polymer describes what it is made of. "Poly" means many. The rest of the word reveals the unit of a polymer. Mucopolysaccharides are also known as glycosaminoglycans. There are many types of mucopolysaccharides. They are common in mucus and in the fluids of the joints. One type of mucopolysaccharide appear to help certain cells in the skin to grow. These cells are responsible for producing the matrix in the skin. The skin continuously creates new matrix and disassembles old matrix in a process called turnover. Without the ability to create new matrix, the skin could not maintain itself.

References:
1. Mucopolysaccharides. MedlinePlus
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002263.htm
2. Introduction to Glycosaminoglucans. Hsieh-Wilson Lab
California Institute of Technology

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Stevia
Stevia is a sweetener that comes from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This plant is native to Paraguay in the tropics of South America. It grows about a foot high and has a shrub like shape. The leaves are 1 to 2 inches long with jagged edges. The top of the stevia leaf is slightly fuzzy. There is also a bit of fuzz on the woody stem. Producers extract glycosidal diterpenes from the leaves to add as a sweetener to foods and supplements. Glycosidal diterpenes is approximately 300 times sweeter than saccharose.

Reference:
PDR for Herbal Medicines from the Medical Economics Company

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Rice Germ Extract:
Rice is a cultivated grain that grows in flooded fields. A grain of rice grows in a spikelet. The spikelets are packed closely around a stalk. Each spikelet has husk on the outside. The next layer in is the bran. Then comes the endosperm. The Germ is the inner most part of a rice grain. It is dense in nutrients including glucosylaceramide. Glucosylaceramide may support the barrier that keeps water inside the skin. Rice bran oil also contains oryzanol, which some researchers believe works as a sunscreen and skin whitener.

References:
1. PDR for Herbal Medicines from the Medical Economics Company
2. Rice Fruit Arrangement. Department of Plant Biology University of California, Davis
http://www-plb.ucdavis.edu/labs/rost/rice/reproduction/grain/arrange.html
3. Kamimura, M., S. Takahashi, and S. Sato, Influence of Oryzanol on the Skin Capillary Circulation, Bitamin 30:341 (1964)
4. Dietary Glucosylceramide Improves Skin Barrier Function in Hairless Mice. PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17000082

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Soybean Extract:
Soybean is a bushy plant that lives for a single year. The leaves are clusters of three leaflets that are fuzzy on the underside. Soybean originated in east Asia. It is found only on farms, not in the wild. Soybean is a popular ingredient in east Asian cuisine. Soy has isoflavones which possess antioxidant properties. Toki features soybean extract in Toki for its antioxidant qualities.

Soy also has estrogen mimics called phytoestrogens. Certain women should avoid phytoestrogens and other estrogen mimics. Consult a healthcare provider if you fall under this category.

1. PDR for Herbal Medicines from the Medical Economics Company
2. Menopause: A Review on the Role of Oxygen Stress and Favorable Effects of Dietary Antioxidants. PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16442644

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HAI (Heated Algal Ingredient)
HAI is a unique amino acid complex from super-heated hijiki seaweed. Tiny amounts of HAI have been scientifically shown to improve absorption of calcium other poorly bioavailable compounds. HAI is added to Toki to enhance absorption of collagen and calcium. Both calcium and collagen benefit skin

References:
1. Fujita T, Ohue T, Fujii Y, et al “Heated Oyster Shell-Seaweed Calcium (AAACa) on [Bone Loss] Calcif Tissue Int (1996) 58:226-23.
2. Fujita T, Fujii Y, Goto B, Miyauchi A,Takagi Y. “A Three Year Comparative trial : Effect of combined alfacalcidol and elcatonin” J Bone Miner Metab (1997) 15:223-226
3. Fujita T, “Calcium Bioavailability from Heated Oyster Shell-Seaweed calcium (Active Absorbable Algal calcium) as Assessed by Urinary Calcium, Excretion” J. Bone Miner Metab (1996) 14:31-34
4. Fujita T, Ohgitani S. , Fujii Y. “Overnight Suppression of Parathyroid Hormone and Bone Resorption Markers by Active Absorbable Algal Calcium. A Double-Blind Crossover Study” Calcif Tissue Int (1997) 60, 506-512
5. Fujita T, Fujii Y, Goto B , Miyauchi A, Takagi Y, Kobayashi S, Komoshita K, et al Increase of Intestinal Calcium Absorption and Bone Mineral Density by Heated Algal-Ingredient (HAI) in Rats J Bone Miner Metab (2000) 18:165-169
6. Fujita T, Ohue M, Fujii Y, Miyauchi A, Takagi T “Reappraisal of Katsuragi Calcium Study, A Prospective, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effect of Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa) on Vertebral Deformity and Fracture” J. Bone Miner Metab (2004) 22:32-38

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